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The Obligations

The Obligations of the Student - Part 10 - That Tefillin Feeling


The Obligations of the Student - Part 10 - That Tefillin Feeling

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That Tefillin Feeling

The Obligations of the Student Part 10


(Slide) Tefillin are cube-shaped black leather boxes, containing four scriptural passages, attached to the head and arm and worn during the morning prayers… although eventually the tefillin were only worn for the Morning Prayer, in Talmudic times they were worn all day and had no special association with prayer. – My Jewish Learning


(Slide) Everyday when one recites the Shema, the centrepiece of morning and evening fixed prayer, one reads the following passages, “And you shall bind them for a sign on your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes.” (Deuteronomy 6:8) 

Qashar owth yad towphaphah (to fa fa) ayin

This is again reiterated in Deuteronomy 11:18, “(You shall) tie them as symbols on your hands and bind them on your foreheads.” (Deuteronomy 11:18)

We as Netzarim, alongside Orthodox Jews, are to be a distinguished people. That is to say that our prayer is to be different to the prayer of all the other nations. 


(Slide) The Hebrew word for prayer is tefillah, which is similar to the word Tefillin. Most people translate this into the English word prayer. However, tefillah is derived from two roots Pey-Lamed-Hey, which is pelah and means “wonder” or “awe,” and Pey-Lamed Lamed and the word l'hitpalel, meaning to judge oneself.

The modern Hebrew is palal, means “criminal.” This is interesting, because all of us in some sense are criminals. So we stand before the almighty judging or weighing ourselves. 


(Slide) The Greek word for Tefillin is Phylactery. This is where we get the word prophylactic, otherwise known as a condom and means to “shield” or “protect.” It comes from Philistine, which means “to defend” or “to guard.” 

This name came about from the Gentile nations who say the wearing of Tefillin as the wearing of a protective amulet. Yet Tefillin may not be considered such. Why? 

Because, the most vulnerable people are exempt from wearing them, that is slaves, women and children and they are forbidden to be worn in the bathroom or in cemeteries.

However, early Sages did believe them to play a role in protection from evil. This is mainly because the demographic instituted to wear them, adult males are the most prone to evil thoughts, and the donning of tefillin counters this act. 

But the Scriptural term used for this item is not Tefillin, but an Aramaic word, to-fa-fa or totafot, from the root word to “encircle,” which is translated “frontlets bound with knots.” The term to also means “two and two” denoting the four compartments that make up the Shel Rosh (head) Tefillin. 

The word Tefillin is not found in Scripture. It’s believed that the word came about as name that means “prayer device.”


The Function of Tefillin

What function do Tefillin perform. Sure, we are told to wear them, and we’ve alluded to them having protective qualities, but what do they do for us? 


(Slide) The Bible states that Tefillin are to serve as a reminder of Yahweh’s intervention at the time of the Exodus from Egypt. “And it shall be for a sign for you upon your hand, and for a memorial between your eyes, that the law of Yahweh may be in your mouth; for with a strong hand did Yahweh bring you out of Egypt.” (Exodus 13:9)

“And it shall be for a sign upon your hand, and as totafot between your eyes; for with a mighty hand did Yahweh bring us forth out of Egypt.” (Exodus 13:16)

So unlike a magic amulet, that when donned does all the work, the Tefillin are worn as a reminder, the strapping and cases pressing into our flesh, causing us to be reminded not think evil thoughts. In Judaism and our faith, sanctity in sacred objects comes from our own action in both the fashioning and handling of the item. In turn the items become imbued with holiness and further sanctify us. 

In many ways, the making and wearing of these items enables us to make a connection with the Divine, not unlike a prayer antenna, a mechanical device used to tune into a specific frequency.  


(Slide) As Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, Laws of Tefillin, 4.25-6) puts it: "Great is the sanctity of tefillin, for as long as the tefillin are upon man's head and arm, he is humble and Elohim-fearing and is not drawn after frivolity and idle talk, and does not have evil thoughts, but directs his heart to words of truth and righteousness. Therefore a man should try to have them on him all day ... Even though they should be worn all day it is the greater obligation to wear them during prayer." In point of fact, some few extremely pious individuals, even in post-Talmudic times, did wear tefillin all day and this seems to have been Maimonides' own practice. But the vast majority of Jews only wear tefillin during the morning prayer.


(Slide) The earliest known use of tefillin was when Ya’akov tended Lavan’s sheep in Genesis 30. Ya’akov devised an ingenious way of maintain a strong and plentiful portion of sheep despite Lavan’s efforts to rob him of them. While he did not wrap tefillin himself, the Sages derive that his action of affecting the flock of sheep by carving streaks in rods of wood is the same premise in that he brought about a spiritual effect in a physical object.  

His actions evoked the same spiritual energies as are drawn down into the world through our performance of the mitzvah of tefillin. After this spiritual service was completed, however, the staves remained ordinary pieces of wood; Yaakov’s service left no lasting effect. In contrast, when a Jew puts on tefillin, the tefillin become sacred; the mitzvah imparts spirituality into their physical substance, and elevates them above the worldly plane.

(Slide) Invariably, this topic engenders the question, ‘Did Yahshua wear tefillin?”

King Messiah Yahshua is silent on any direct endorsement or rebuke of wearing tefillin. He does however rebuke overly large tefillin as he does excessive length of tzitzit (tassels). 

”They (the scribes and the Pharisees) tie up heavy loads and put them on men's shoulders, but they themselves are not willing to lift a finger to move them.  Everything they do is done for men to see: They make their tefillin wide and the tzitzit on their garments long; they love the place of honor at banquets and the most important seats in the synagogues; (Matthew 23:4-6)”

(Slide) The problem with the scribes and the Pharisees was not their authority but their hypocrisy.  “Upon the seat of Moshe the Parushim and the Rabbis of the Torah sit, and now, all which they will say unto you-keep and do; but THEIR deeds do not do, because THEY say and do not.” (Matthew 23:3)

The Seat of Moshe was the authority given to the Rabbis of the Torah and Pharisees by Abba Yahweh, and endorsed through His Son YahShua, to judge “the difficult cases (Exodus 18:22)” and give understanding to the people of the laws and statutes of Yahweh as Moshe did:- “Exodus 18:16…and…do make them know the statutes of Yahweh, and his Torah” without exaggeration or hypocrisy.

Can Women Wear Tefillin? 


(Slide) The duty of laying tefillin rests upon males after the age of thirteen years.  Although women are exempt from the obligation, some early codifiers allowed them to do so. Historically, the mitzvahof tefillin was not performed by women, but the ritual was apparently kept by some women in medieval France and Germany. Traditions exist of some prominent women laying tefillin.


Others who are not obliged to lay tefillin include a mourner during the first day of his mourning period, a bridegroom on his wedding-day. Sufferers of stomach pain or one who is otherwise in pain and cannot concentrate his mind are also exempt. One who is engaged in the study of the Law and scribes of and dealers in tefillin and mezuzot while engaged in their work if it cannot be postponed, are also free from this obligation. 


(Slide) There are plenty of resources available that will enable the student to learn much about Tefillin. I recommend buying a book or two on the subject before or with your purchase of tefillin. 


Tefillin: Making the Connection by Yisroel Ehrman is a book outlining the laws and significance of tefillin and is a good entry level work introducing the novice student to this Biblical command. It contains two vivid stories of Jews devotion to the act of binding tefillin that take place during WWII and shows how to put them on and contains a question and answers section. It has full colour photos and is very easy to read. With less the 80 pages and bound in a durable hardback format, this book can be taken anywhere. 


(Slide) There are literally hundreds of places one can buy Tefillin. Do your own research and ask questions when needed. 


(Slide) In considering to buy teffilin bear in mind that it is woven into the daily Shema and is not only a verbal proclamation that is a sign, but the actual physical application of the vow. Also, it is well worth considering the alternative. You can go with Yahweh. Deuteronomy 6:8: "You shall bind them (commandments) as a sign on your hand and they shall be as frontals on your forehead."  Or you can go with the Beast. Revelations 13:16: "He will cause all, small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on his right hand or on his forehead, so that no one could buy or sell unless he had the mark..."


(Slide) Furthermore, there are a few startling similarities between a heroin addict’s ritual of shooting up and an Israelite ritual of binding tefillin. One is an artificial counterfeit spiritual high that gradually eats away the body and soul, whilst the other is a biblical command that heightens one’s spiritual state and increase the length and quality of one’s days. 

“May some of the spiritual influence of the commandment of tefillin be extended upon me so that I have a long life, a flow of holiness, and holy thoughts, without even an inkling of sin or iniquity; and that the Evil Inclination will not seduce us nor incite against us, and that it permit us to serve Hashem as is our hearts' desire. “ – Tefillin Prayer

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The Obligations of the Student - Part 9 - Spiritual Wardrobe


The Obligations of the Student - Part 9 - Spiritual Wardrobe

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The Obligations of the Student Part 9

Spiritual Wardrobe


Since the fall in Gan Eden (Garden of Eden) clothing, the application of a foreign object to provide man with warmth, dignity and protection, has been a staple part of human existence. 

The first fashioner of clothing was the Creator Himself. “Yahweh Elohim made garments of skin for Adam and his wife and clothed them. (Genesis 3:21)” 


Peta (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) who’s slogan is “Animals are not ours,” an animal rights movement who protest and lobbies against the use of animals for just about every purpose, appose the use of animals for producing clothing made with fur, leather, wool, or silk. It also opposes the use of down from birds and the use of silk from silkworms or spiders. The group notes on its website: “Every year, millions of animals are killed for the clothing industry—all in the name of fashion. Whether the clothes come from Chinese fur farms, Indian slaughterhouses, or the Australian outback, an immeasurable amount of suffering goes into every fur-trimmed jacket, leather belt, and wool sweater.”

This organisation’s stance on the use of animals for clothing and food is a direct affront to the natural order and the will of the Almighty Himself who sanctioned these practices for human kind.  “Everything that lives and moves about will be food for you. Just as I gave you the green plants, I now give you everything. (Genesis 9:3)” 

If Peta and many similar organisations had their way, it would be against the law to manufacture and own kosher Torah scrolls, mezuzot, and Tefillin (prayer phylacteries), three objects made from the hide of sheep, goats, oxen, cows or donkeys. 

Wearing clothing is the fulfillment of a command and is seen in our faith and Orthodox Judaism as a vehicle for religious observance. 


We are also commanded in the Torah not to wear clothing that is a mixture of different material. “Do not wear clothes of wool and linen woven together. (Deuteronomy 22:11)” The wearing of non-kosher clothing is called Shatnez (mixture).

Many fabrics today have mixed fibers and are not 100% any particular one material, and this is usually permitted, unless wool and linen (or wool products and linen products) are mixed.

“Wool and linen attached to each other by any means is forbidden. It does not matter whether they are sewn together, spun, twisted, glued, or any method of attaching whatsoever. Any method of combining wool and linen is forbidden. Wool that has linen thread through it, linen that has woolen thread through it, wool and linen fabric sewn together by silk (or any type of thread), wool or linen held together by a needle or pin - all these are forbidden. However, it is permitted to wear a linen garment over a woolen garment, or vice versa, since they are not attached to each other.” Source -


The first and most striking feature of clothing of the male Netzri or Yehudi (Nazarene or Jew) is the tallit, a prayer shawl, which is designed to support four tassels or cords made of wool. The first and most impactful thing a Christian notices about a gathering of true Netzarim (Nazarenes) is the wearing of these garments. At the point of donning these vestments a newcomer is either in or out. They’re either intrigued or they’re looking for the door as the room fills with ghost like images. 


The tallit is a garment one can wear to create a sense of personal space during prayer - the name comes from two root words: TAL meaning tent and ITH meaning little. Thus, you have a ‘little tent” or a mini mishkan (tabernacle) By wrapping yourself in it, you create a buffer zone between you and the outside world. In doing this your prayers, conversations and reflections are given privacy.

King Messiah Yahshua said “when you pray, enter into your chamber, and shut the door…”  (Matthew 6:6) This passage refers to the Jewish practice of using one’s tallit (prayer shawl) to create a private chamber over one’s head in which to pray with some privacy even in a public location. According to the Book of Jasher Enoch often concealed himself in his “chamber” (same word in the Hebrew) and his soul was “wrapped up” in the instruction of Yahweh (Jasher 3:2, 5)


Interestingly the tallit is not mentioned specifically as a command to wear it, however, the tzitzit (fringes) are commanded, which rely upon the staging of a four cornered garment.

“Yahweh said to Moshe, 'Speak to the Israelites and say to them: Throughout the generations to come,  you are to make tassels on the corners of one's garments, with a blue cord on each tassel. You will have these tassels to look at and so will remember all the commands of Yahweh, that you may obey them and not prostitute yourselves by going after the lusts of your own hearts and eyes. Then you will remember to obey all My commands, and will be consecrated to your Elohim. I am Yahweh your Elohim. (Numbers 15:37-41a)”

We’ve talked about the symbolism of the tallit in the past, mentioning its relationship to the tabernacle and its symbolism of the Ruach HaKodesh (the Holy Spirit) and even its Kabbalistic link to the Cloud of Glory that adorned the first humans before the fall, but there is yet another significance to its design. 

In Judaism it is taught that wearing a tallit (prayer shawl) combats depression, protecting an occupant from tormenting spirits. But in what way? In Isaiah 53:5 there is mention of Moshiach’s afflictions and the final form addressed is an interesting word. It’s usual English rendering is “stripes.”


“But he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was on him, and by his wounds we are healed. (Isaiah 53:5)” This is interesting, because we can see symbolism not only on the tallit with its customary stripes, but across several religious icons, such as the mishkan (tabernacle), Israeli flag and the matzah bread (unleavened bread).

But I still haven’t answered the question. In what way does it combat evil. Well, the blue stripes represent the wounds, the blue bruises and the blood of Messiah rising to the surface.  What does the word say?  “…when I see the blood, I will pass over you. (Exodus 12:13)” 

The notion of a powerful mantle, robe or cloak is imbedded in the psyche of every human being. A special garment or ‘mantel’ that enwraps is a feature of nearly every wise and powerful figure throughout ancient history. So ingrained is this feature that it has risen up through the ages as a chief article of adornment of specially empowered individuals, even fictitious superheroes.


Next up is the tzitzit (fringes or tassels).

Tzizit also called gadilim, which means ‘twisted tassel with a knot,’ is a lock, a fringe, a tassel, or a forelock of hair.

As we’ve said, wearing of a tallit is a commandment by proxy, because though it is not officially directed, the tzitzyot, which are commanded, are supported by it. Note Numbers 15:38; “…they shall make for themselves fringes on the corners of their garments…affix a thread of tekhelet on the fringe of each corner.” And in Deuteronomy 22:12; “You shall make tassels on the four corners of your garment with which you cover yourself.”

Observing the mitzvah of tzitzit is equivalent to all the mitzvot in the Torah, because it reminds us of all of them based on Numbers 15:40; “So that you shall remember and perform all My commandments, and you shall be holy to your Elohim.”


The colour of the tzitzit are also mandated in Scripture. “…and that they shall affix a thread of tekhelet sky-blue [wool] on the fringe of each corner. (Numbers 15:38)”

The observant eye will notice that the commandment to wear tzitzit is accompanied by mention of a colour, תכלתtekhelet, usually translated as ‘blue wool’ and yet most Orthodox Jews refrain from wearing a blue colour in their tzitzit. Why is this?

There are a myriad of reasons. The most common is that the sea animal that provided the unique royal blue coloured dye is in dispute. The Murex trunculus, a type of sea snail is said to not match various descriptions given by certain Rishonim (leading rabbis of the past). Some rabbis around the 19th century believed the Sepia Officinalis (the common cuttlefish) fulfills the requirement of tekhelet. There are other species of sea animals as well and the debate is very complex.

According to the Talmud, the dye of tekhelet was produced from a marine creature known as the kḥillazon (also spelledchilazon). And according to the Tosefta (Men. 9:6), the khillazon is the exclusive source of the dye. Which animal is the khillazon is an ongoing debate.  

The means of obtaining the techelet dye is from the cuttlefish call  Chilazon: “The Chilazon is this: its body is like the sea, its creation is like fish, it comes up once in seventy years and with its blood one dyes techelet - consequently it is expensive”.(Menacchhot 44a) 


The main argument Jews have against wearing tekhelet is over false sources, but there are other excuses. Here are some:

* Haredi rabbis: We don't deviate from the previous generation's mesorah, even if they call left "right" and right "left".

* Haredi layfolk: Because my rav doesn't wear it.

* Modern rabbis: We probably should, but it's not my mission.

* Modern layfolk: Eh, not interested. Plus, the people who wear it tend to be, er... "eccentric" types.

Encouragingly, many Orthodox Jews are beginning to reincorporate the wearing of tekhelet in their tzitzit, but as we can see the debate over the source of the dye and the other reasons given should not discourage the observance of a clearly exhibited commandment. 


Photo at Kotel (discuss)


Tzitzit teach us to make spirituality a part of our daily reality. In seeing the tzitzit, we have a tangible reminder of an incorporeal Elohim, in this way we catch a glimpse of the Divine in all things. This idea is evident from Song of Songs 2:9, where it says “Behold, says the maiden, he stands behind our wall, looking in through the windows, and peering through the lattice work.”

The Hebrew words May’tzeetz min ha’chah’rah’keem,  are translated as ‘peers’ or ‘peaks’ through the lattice work. The implication of this interpretation is that through the mitzvah of Tzitzit, Elohim peeks at His people, constantly keeping an eye on them, watching out for their benefit and well-being, reminding them to be faithful and good.


(Slide) Worshippers kiss the Tzitzit when they are mentioned in prayers. Since the Tzitzit points to Messiah, kissing it reminds us of Psalm 2:12, ‘‘Kiss the Son lest He be angry.’’ With this rightly understood, kissing the Tzitzit is in obedience to this commandment. This is proper because we see the Messiah in the fringes.


(Slide) Each Tzitzit consists of 7 white strands representing the number of perfection and the tekhelet (blue thread) makes 8, the number of new beginnings. The numerical value of tzitzit is 600. This combined with the 8 strands and 5 knots makes a total of 613, the total number of commandments in the Torah. 


Did you Know?   When people wear tzitzit they are literally donning the 613 commandments of the Torah. This in effect places spiritual armour over all the 248 organs of the body and its 365 sinews, which add up to 613.


(Slide) The tzitzit that hang from the four corners of the tallit contain numerical values that teach and re-enforce Torah principles. This is what’s called gematria (Hebrew) a form of ‘Biblical numerology.’ Every thread, twist and tie of the thread that make tzitzit is pregnant with meaning. 

Each tassel (tzitzit) should have 39 windings (7+8+11+13), which are separated by 5 lots of 2 double knots (7+8 =15 + 11 = 26) 26 is the total numerical value of the name of Yahweh. 13 is the value of Echad (one). Therefore the windings of each Tzitzit say “Yahweh is one.”


Each tassel (Tzitzis) should have 39 windings (7+8+11+13), which are separated by 5 lots of 2 double knots (7+8 =15 + 11 = 26) 26 is the total numerical value of the name of Yahweh. 13 is the value of Echad (one). Therefore the windings of each Tzitzit say “Yahweh is one.”

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The Obligations of the Student - Part 8


The Obligations of the Student - Part 8

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The Obligations of the Student Part 8

The Obligation to Dress the Part - Women


Obedience is the grateful heart’s response to salvation.  Humble servants look to Scripture, not for how much liberty they have or how much they can get away with, but to search it for that thing that is most pleasing to Yahweh. “He who loves me keeps my commandments” (John 14:23)

When we become grafted into the nation of Israel, we take on its heritage in its fullest totality. We absorb ourselves into its identity in full, that is the chosen people of the Torah become our ancestors, as do the patriarchs and the matriarch’s become our forefathers. We no longer speak in the third person. 

We do not approach this faith as a discipline that seasons our already establishes lives, we engulf ourselves in it’s all encompassing reality. It’s our complete identity! The one true faith of Yahweh, practiced for many centuries almost exclusively by the Jews becomes our religion! It’s yours now! We are Israel! Not spiritual Israel, denoting any distinction from its root, just plain Israel! It’s your religion, your people, your culture and it’s your clothing. 

You’ve heard the expression; ‘you are what you eat.’ But you are also what you choose to wear!

It’s time to reconnect with our clothing!


You see originally, our first parents – Adam & Chavah (Eve) walked with Yahweh in the Garden of Eden totally naked except for the glory – the Divine Light emanating from them.  They were a spiritual being clothed with a physical body that was saturated in Yahweh’s glory. There was absolutely no shame. 

However, once they broke that one command that Yahweh had given them. The one dietary law of not eating from the Tree of Knowledge, they betrayed the one part of Torah revealed to them. Suddenly, evil, doubt, alienation and shame flooded into their minds along with the knowledge that they were naked.  So, they clothed themselves with fig leaves.

Once Yahweh saw their condition he slew an animal and He made atonement to their condition by covering them in the skins. You see the Torah prescribes even what kind of clothes we wear.

In Hebrew the word for clothing is “begged” from the root “bagad” meaning “to betray or act faithlessly.” Now the word Hebrew itself denotes who we are, connecting ourselves to Avraham and this word is “ivri” in Hebrew and means “From Beyond.” So today’s subject is “Clothing from Beyond” (Begged Ivri). 

When we think of spiritual warfare, our thinking is usually confined to the subject, of prayer, fasting, study of the Word and the ability to use that study to combat situations with the utterance of relevant Scripture. 

Less well known is the role that clothing plays within this sphere of our faith, particularly as it pertains to woman. Why do women get singled out here? The answer is that woman are a more astutely designed than a man.


Their bodies and the way they move them have immense power to affect worlds, both for good and for bad. They are blessed with the ability to cause desire in a man and bring about perpetuation of the species, through having the ability to conceive offspring. Ironically their bodies go through a wider array of riggers than a man’s body and yet their beauty is superior and they generally live longer lives than men. 

This being the case, their far superior design, if handled correctly through modesty enables them to pack a powerful punch against the dark forces. Conversely, if they misuse their bodies they can cause great damage to the forces of good. 


The Israelite woman is one whose life is marked by prayer. A follower of Yahshua HaMoshiach makes prayer one of the sources of his daily strength. The veiling on an Israelite woman’s head is a symbol of her communion with Yahweh through prayer. “…a virtuous  wife…makes herself coverings” (Proverbs 31:10,22) Modesty is the most important duty a woman has in their obedience of the Torah. The real laws of modesty are not dictated by the fashion world, it’s dictated by the Torah. Walk down the street or in a crowed mall and you will see hundreds of women not passing their test.

What happened? One time a person makes a mistake and slips below the red line and then they do it a little bit more and a little bit more and then it becomes the norm. It becomes culturally accepted.


In Hebrew the word for modesty is tzniut (Hebrew: צניעות, tzniut, Sephardi pronunciation, tzeniut(h); Ashkenazi pronunciation, tznius, "modesty", or "privacy"). Tzniut is used to describe both the character trait of modesty and humility, as well as a group of Jewish laws pertaining to conduct in general and especially between the sexes. The term is frequently used with regard to the rules of dress for women.

The concept of modesty is a difficult topic in this modern world. This idea hits western culture straight in the nose. In a world of "If you got it, flaunt it," modesty is a trait to be avoided, something primitive, reminding us of images of some ancient family photo of a stiff great-grandmother from Europe.

Some feel it forces a woman into hiding. But modesty does not mean a denial of self, nor does it force us into hiding. Rather, it creates a private area—a dignified space—in which we can work to excel, without concern for external judgment and approval. The rabbis even go so far as to say that "there is nothing more beautiful than modesty." In fact, the opposite is true in regard to restricting a woman. A woman who takes modesty seriously transforms worlds, repairs breaches and conquers countless dark entities every second that she practices this discipline.   


In Scripture, we see modesty as a common attribute among the early matriarchs. 

“Rebekah also looked up and saw Isaac…and asked the servant, ‘Who is that man in the field coming to meet us?’ ‘He is my master,’ the servant answered. So she took her veil and covered herself. (Genesis 24:64-65)” 

“How beautiful you are, my darling! Oh, how beautiful! Your eyes behind your veil are doves. (Song of Songs 4:1a)” 


Throughout Torah a woman’s modesty is praised as her most outstanding feature. In fact, modesty is mentioned as one of Yahweh’s chief requirements.  “It has been told you, O man, what is good, and what Elohim asks of you: Only that you do justice, love kindness, and walk modestly with your Elohim. (Micah 6:8)”  

“When a wilful sinner comes, disgrace comes. But with modest ones [come] wisdom (Proverbs 11:2)” 


What is the secret of the veil, the chief symbol of modesty? More important than what we are covering is what we are exposing. The most prominent parts of the body that are allowed to be seen are the face and the hands. These two body parts express the inner self. How? The face reveals who we are: the smile, the eyes (which are windows to the soul), facial expressions, etc. Our hands represent what we do, our endeavors in life. Here we have it: the face and the hands, people's inner content and their accomplishments. In other words, the part of ourselves that we may share with others is the spiritual self.

What are the requirements of tzniut? (refer to slide above)


“Therefore I want the men everywhere to pray, lifting up holy hands without anger or disputing. I also want the women to dress modestly, with decency and propriety, adorning themselves, not with elaborate hairstyles or gold or pearls or expensive clothes, but with good deeds, appropriate for women who profess to worship Elohim. (1 Timothy 2:8-10)”

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